The area near the volcano has been inhabited for centuries by Hawaiian natives, dating back to before recorded history.  They also create submarine mountains named seamounts. This caused $100,000 worth of damage to the Kona district ($1.2 million as of 2010), and two earthquakes with magnitudes of 5.5 and 6.5 were felt as far away as Honolulu. One volcanic vent, situated high on the slope, produced a large Ê»aÊ»Ä flow, dubbed the KaÊ»Å«pÅ«lehu flow, that reached the ocean as two distinct lobes. The Hawaiian Islands underwent volcanic eruptions, which led to the creation of the series of islands. The Kona airport lies on top of one of these flows. Kilauea is both Hawaii’s youngest shield volcano on land, as well as the most active. Kaloko-HonokÅhau National Historical Park, List of mountain peaks of the United States, "HualÄlai, HawaiÊ»i's Third Active Volcano", "Hiking Trails: About the Pu'u Wa'awa'a Trail System", "Hualalai Volcano: Kailua-Kona's intriguing neighbor", "Historic Sites Review of a Proposed Mauna Loa Trail System", "Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)", "Four Seasons Resort Hualalai at Historic Ka'upulehu", "2 Big Island resorts still closed because of tsunami damage", "Kona Coffee â What Makes It So Unique? Scientists refer to the falling ash as cinders, hence its name. , The 2006 Kiholo Bay earthquake, with epicenter just to the north in Kiholo Bay near MÄhukona, caused much damage in the area. Two eruptions in 1800 and 1801 produced lava flows from the northwest rift zone. Fig.  The USGS is currently in the process of upgrading its aging monitoring and telemetry equipment, using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds. Hualālai is estimated to have risen above sea level about 300,000 years ago. The family of early coffee merchant Henry Nicholas Greenwell owned a large ranch on the western side of the volcano. , Lava attributed to a shield-stage HualÄlai has been found just offshore of the volcano's northwest rift zone. An area of about 1,000 km2 (390 sq mi), the slump consists of an intricate formation of beaches and scarps 2,000 to 4,500 m (6,600 to 14,800 ft) below the waterline. Mauna Kea is considered a dormant volcano, having last erupted about 4,500 years ago.  HualÄlai's structure is denoted by three rift zones: a well-developed one approximately 50Â° to the northwest, a moderately developed one to the southeast, and a poorly developed one trending northwards about 3 mi (5 km) east of the summit. Hualalai erupted several times in the late 18th century and was last active in 1800–01. Although it has been relatively placid in the recent past, HualÄlai is still potentially active, and is expected to erupt again within the next 100 years.. (At MP 30.2) Puhia Pele was formed during the most recent eruptions of Hualalai in 1800-1801. , HualÄlai has been a home to native people since ancient times.  Being in the post-shield stage of development, HualÄlai is overall much rougher in shape and structure than the more youthful Mauna Loa and KÄ«lauea. Pumice and trachyte eruptions at Puʻu Waʻawaʻa may be a sign of this change. Post-shield volcanism began 100,000 years ago and covered the entire surface of the volcano. These are summarized in the table below: HualÄlai last erupted in 1800â1801. Today the coast near HualÄlai is dotted by vacation resorts, some built on historic flows, and a National Historical Park. Two large earthquakes (each about magnitude 6.5) destroyed houses, water tanks, stone fences, and roadways. But this crater wasn’t formed by collapse after the eruption; it was built up during an eruption. Hualalai's last eruption was in 1801. , The Honuaula forest reserve on the southwestern flank of the volcano at 19Â°30â²25â³N 155Â°54â²41â³W / 19.50694Â°N 155.91139Â°W / 19.50694; -155.91139 (Honuaula State Forest), preserves an extensive koa (Acacia koa) forest stand, with smaller Naio (Myoporum sandwicense) and MÄmane (Sophora chrysophylla) trees and an undergrowth of ʻÄkala (Rubus hawaiensis) and various ferns. The total output volume of the flow is estimated at over 300,000,000 m3 (0.072 cu mi). It was a gathering place for those who went swimming and a place where the surf rolled in and dashed on land when it was rough. HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY MONTHLY UPDATE U.S. Geological Survey Thursday, December 3, 2020, 12:39 PM HST (Thursday, December 3, 2020, 22:39 UTC). , HualÄlai is a known source for xenoliths, rock from the Earth's mantle that have been brought up in lava flows. [/caption] Shield volcanoes are some of the largest volcanoes in the world. alkali basalt with minor amounts of picritic basalt, hawaiite and ankaramite, Lava spatter, cinders, extensively weathered Ê»aÊ»Ä and pahoehoe lava flows and, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 15:52. It extends for 9 km (6 mi), and has a prominence of 275 m (902 ft), north of the summit at 19Â°46â²15â³N 155Â°49â²56â³W / 19.77083Â°N 155.83222Â°W / 19.77083; -155.83222 (Puu Waa Waa). Data collected showed that the lava flows there originated in shallow water 500 to 1,000 m (1,600 to 3,300 ft) deep, and that unlike similar slumps at other volcanoes, the slump at HualÄlai formed gradually. Hawaiʻi (Hawaiian pronunciation: [həˈvɐjʔi], anglicized Hawaii / h ə ˈ w aɪ. Kilauea is presently one of the most productive volcanoes on Earth (in terms of how much lava it erupts each year). Each island is made of one or more volcanoes, which first erupted on the floor of the Pacific Ocean and emerged above sea level only after countless eruptions.  It is the westernmost, third-youngest and the third-most active of the five volcanoes that form the island of Hawaiʻi, following KÄ«lauea and the much larger Mauna Loa. HualÄlai (pronounced [huwÉËlaËlÉi] in Hawaiian) is an active volcano on the island of Hawaiʻi in the Hawaiian Islands.  The eruption at HualÄlai was concurrent with an eruption at the nearby Mauna Loa. Its dome, 24 miles (39 km) long and 20 miles (32 km) wide, covers an … As the plate moves away, the volcano stops erupting and a new one is formed in its place. About 105,000 years ago a trachyte cone, Puu Waawaa, formed on the north rift and generated flows that traveled about 6 miles (10 km). For comparison, almost all of KÄ«lauea and Mauna Loa is listed as threat levels 1 through 3. , A major subfeature of HualÄlai is Puʻu Waʻawaʻa, Hawaiian for "many-furrowed hill", a volcanic cone standing 372 m (1,220 ft) tall and measuring over 1.6 km (1 mi) in diameter. Inset shows the geographical relations between Hualalai and the other volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. It doesn’t get much more incredible than meandering through lush rainforest to the floor of this lava lake formed in 1959. Although five vents were active at the time, only two produced flows that eventually reached the ocean. Hualalai is the westernmost shield volcano on the Island of Hawaii.  HualÄlai entered the post-shield stage, the stage it is presently in, about 100,000 years ago. His death in 1819 triggered social chaos. 1 Map of Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii showing the 1800-1801 flows and locations of known beds of xenolith nodules. Hualalai is an active volcano but has not erupted for a while. During this time, not a single earthquake swarm or harmonic tremor, indicative of activity at the volcano, has occurred. Hualalai, dormant volcano (8,271 feet [2,521 metres]), northwestern Hawaii island, Hawaii, U.S.  Both the Kona Village Resort and the Four Seasons Resort were damaged by the tsunami generated by the 2011 Sendai earthquake. Although HualÄlai does experience several magnitude-4 earthquakes per year, these are attributed to a deep source off the coast of the north-western rift zone and are not related to the movement of magma. Centuries ago, the Ahu A Umi Heiau was built on the dry plateau east of the mountain. The last eruption of lava dates back to 1801, and the last damaging seismic swarm of earthquakes (probably caused by a shallow intrusion of magma) happened in 1929. Hualalai on the Big Island’s western side is the third-youngest of the island’s volcanoes. The recurrence of activity at the volcano seems to be every 200 to 300 years. Corrections? Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth. The hotspot is thought to lurk for now below the archipelago's youngest and most active landmass, the Big Island of Hawaii. A spatter cone is formed from a lava fountain erupting from a single vent, unlike a fissure eruption which is a long series of vents or openings. Near the Kona airport is a lava tube that was formed during that eruption.  More than half of this is under 3,000 years old, and about 12% is less than 1,000 years of age.  In comparison with the other volcanoes of the island of Hawaiʻi, it is the third-tallest, third-youngest, third-most active, and second-smallest, making up just 7% of the island.  This 1801 flow, known as the Huʻehuʻe flow, formed Keahole Point where Kona International Airport is now located, 11 km (6.8 mi) north of Kailua-Kona. Hualalai Volcano Lava Tubes - Kona, Hawaii Hualalai is a dormant volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii. Tholeiitic basalt, indicative of the submarine subphase of the volcano's construction, has been found in wells driven into the volcano at a depth of 75 ft (23 m). On those islands, Hawaii consists of five major volcanoes: Kilauea, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Kohala, and Mauna Kea (Macdonald 59). The last time it erupted was in 1801, and it could erupt again. Cinder cones generally feature steep slopes that form a conical mountain, with a noticeable crater that gives the volcano a flat shape at its top. The last eruptions of the volcano was over 200 years ago. Spatter deposits, Ê»aÊ»Ä and pahoehoe basalt lava flows. Three rifts radiate to the north, south, and northwest. In which country are the Southern Alps located? - Hualalai is a Shield volcano. This area was explored more closely in a 2001 joint Japan-United States project to explore the volcano's flanks, utilizing the remotely operated vehicle ROV KaikÅ. , The westward-facing flank of HualÄlai forms a large underwater slump known as the North Kona slump. As they age, the crust upon which they sit cools and subsides. Hualalai volcano last erupted during 1800-1801, when it produced lava flows from 5 fissure vents that reached the sea and buried Hawaiian villages. , The other major outflow from the event reached the sea south of Kiholo Bay, destroying the village of KaÊ»Å«pÅ«lehu.  The flanks of the volcano do not pose a lower threat to the population than the area near the rift zones because the distance is short and the slopes are steep; lava poses as much of a threat as it does near its source. Trachyte flows move more slowly than the typically "runny" Hawaiian lavas, a characteristic caused by its high (over 62%) silica composition (typical basalt is only 50% silica). Its peak stands 8,271 feet (2,521 m) above sea level. There is one more major volcano, Loihi, which is considered a submarine volcano (Macdonald 4). HualÄlai has no summit caldera, although there is a collapse crater about 0.3 mi (0.48 km) across atop a small lava shield. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. A survey has been conducted every two years since 1986, but as of 2010[update] no changes have been recorded. Hualalai is the westermost shield volcano on the island of Hawaii.  On its way down, it overran a village and a valuable 3 mi (5 km) fishing pond. The Hawaiian Islands are at the southeast end of a chain of volcanoes that began to form more than 70 million years ago. Omissions? It is theorized that, in the near past, HualÄlai has had synchronous eruptions with both Mauna Loa and Kilauea. The last (and only) historical eruption of Hualalai volcano was witnessed by one of Captain Cook's expedition crew members who had remained on the island. The Puʻu Waʻa Waʻa forest sanctuary was established in 1992 (along with the Laupahoehoe sister reserve on Mauna Kea) as a testbed for long term ecological research about Hawaiian moist forest and dry forest biomes, and lies within a mile of the volcano's summit on its northwestern flank. The agency plans to add another seismometer and three more sensors to help monitor activity. Very active 2,400â1,900 years. The Big Island, for instance, is constructed of 5 major volcanoes: Kilauea, Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea, Hualalai and Kohala. The first, Kona Village resort, was built in 1961.  The Wai Aha spring reserve on the lower slopes of the mountain is somewhat swampy and is home to the flowering evergreen Åhiʻa (Metrosideros polymorpha), the woody climber ʻIeʻie (Freycinetia arborea), and a dense undergrowth of ʻAmaʻu (Sadleria cyatheoides).. It was here that Kamehameha I rested after his eight-year campaign to unite the Hawaiian isles. The Big Island, for instance, is constructed of 5 major volcanoes: Kilauea, Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea, Hualalai and Kohala. Kohala, Hawaii 96743, USA Kohala Volcano is the oldest of volcanoes that form the Big Island of Hawaii, having emerged from the sea more than 500,000 years ago. The crater is in a Spatter Cone. "Bathymetry" refers to the depth from the ocean's surface to features on the seafloor. , Geological mapping of the volcano has indicated that as much as 80% of the volcano's surface has been topped by lava flows during the last 5,000 years, entirely composed of shield alkalic basalt. , HualÄlai is the third most active volcano making up the island of Hawaiʻi, behind KÄ«lauea and Mauna Loa. It emerged from the ocean some 300,000 years ago and is one of five volcanoes that form the island. Lace your climbing boots tight, because this quiz will test whether you can conquer the highest peaks of knowledge. The Kilauea eruption briefly formed this small island off the coast of Hawaii.  This presents a distinct hazard to the communities around it as well; for example, in the event of an eruption similar to the 1801 event, Kailua-Kona, which is 15 mi (24 km) from the volcano's summit, could be covered completely in a matter of hours. Located in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, it is an elongated dome built of lava eruptions from a central crater and from lines of craters extending along … , Since 1991, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) has maintained a seismic recording station 3 km (1.9 mi) east of HualÄlai's summit to monitor the volcano. Many prehistoric deposits, as well as those from the 1801 event, contain xenoliths of large size and abundant quantity. Kilauea, the world’s most active volcanic mass, situated on the southeastern part of the island of Hawaii, Hawaii state, U.S. , â John Papa ÄªʻÄ«, court attendant of Kamehameha II.  The Kaloko-HonokÅhau National Historical Park lies on the shore west of HualÄlai, over the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement. Despite maintaining a very low level of activity since its last eruption in 1801, and being unusually inactive for the last 2,000 years, Hualālai is s… Despite maintaining a very low level of activity since its last eruption in 1801, and being unusually inactive for the last 2,000 years, HualÄlai is still considered active, and is expected to erupt again some time within the next century. , Much of the Kona coffee crop grows on HualÄlai's western slope near the town of Holualoa. Hualālai is an active volcano on the island of Hawaiʻi in the Hawaiian Islands. Huliheʻe Palace, where many of Hawaii's last kings spent their time, has been maintained as a museum since 1927. , Kamakahonu, Holualoa Bay, and Keauhou Bay were favored retreats of Hawaiian royalty long before the westernization of Hawaii. Its molten rock fuels the eruption of this island's four active volcanoes: Mauna Loa, Kīlauea, Hualālai, and the offshore underwater volcano Lōihi.  Between the years 1700 and 2016, eruptions originated from six vents; four of these lava flows poured into the sea to the west coast. Its dome, 24 miles (39 km) long and 20 miles (32 km) wide, covers an area of 290 square miles (751 square km). But it was Hawaii's Kīlauea volcano that made global headlines in May 2018 as it embarked on a months-long eruption—the latest leg of a lengthy burst of activity that started in 1983. Mokuaikaua Church, built for missionaries in 1837 of lava rock and crushed coral, still stands today. It is the westernmost, third-youngest and the third-most active of the five volcanoes that form the island of Hawaiʻi, following Kīlauea and the much larger Mauna Loa. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has divided the exposed lava flows and tephra erupted by HualÄlai volcano during the last 112,000 years into 419 rock units of eight chronostratigraphic age groups. There are two main attractions within the park: the Kaloko fishpond, an area of loko kuapa (rockwall fishponds) constructed of interlocking rocks across a natural embayment on the coast, and HonokÅhau, a former extensive settlement on the south side of the park. Hualalai’s volcanic cones provide the ash soil for the surrounding Kona coffee belt. Hualalai began erupting about 800,000 years ago and breached the sea surface about 300,000 years ago. The Hawaiian Islands are believed to be formed from one such 'hot spot'. lava tubes are created … As you might expect, low numbers on a depth map refer to shallow regions, or the high point on a submarine mountain such as Loihi. Updates? Many of the collapse craters in particular have vegetation, and a few even have respectably-sized "vertical forests" inside, including several eucalyptus tree groves. With time, the volcanoes keep drifting westward and getting older relative to the one active volcano that is over the hot spot. ", "Marine Corps Base Hawaii G-3 Training Areas - Pohakuloa Training Area (PTA)", "SummitPost â Hualalai â Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering", "Hualalai 72, Hawaii (512151): Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=HualÄlai&oldid=995351949, Articles with dead external links from July 2020, Pages using infobox mountain with language parameter, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, mostly central summit area and southeast flank, Dark grey to black vent lava spatter (including a 650-meter-long spatter rampart), cinders, Ê»aÊ»Ä and pahoehoe basalt lava flows, including Hualalai's longest lava flow (22 km). Public domain.) Magma, which is underground, rose until it erupted on the floor of the sea. One of the best craters is the unparalleled Kilauea Iki, which you can walk through on an epic, unforgettable four-mile hike. Over millions of years, five volcanoes erupted to create the eight islands of Hawaii. The 3 depressions in the summit area are "pit craters"; the lower-left most crater was formed in July 1996. Plentiful lava flows from the 19th century provide unique niches for vegetative and soil growth in the region. A severe earthquake swarm shook the volcano in 1929, lasting about a month. When this magma reaches the surface, it is referred to as the lava, which solidifies and hardens as it comes into contact with the sea water. HUALALAI VOLCANO (VNUM #332040) 19°41'31" N 155°52'12" W, Summit Elevation 8278 ft (2523 m) Current Volcano Alert Level: NORMAL Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN No significant activity was recorded at Hualālai Volcano … , Today, the coast west of HualÄlai is a popular location for vacation resorts, since the rain shadow of the mountain causes many sunny days. The eruption occurred from 2 fissure vents which fed 2 large lava flows to the west and northwest. These lavas persisted until an estimated 130,000 years ago. The most recent major activity at the volcano was in 1929, when an intense earthquake swarm rocked HualÄlai, most likely caused by magmatic action near the volcano's peak. Although it is called kekaha Ê»aÊ»ole wai (lands without water), the rugged volcanic terrain attracted much sea life, making it an appealing place to settle. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Hualalai, northwestern Hawaii island, Hawaii. Elevation differs from sea level near the coastal edge to 6,300 ft (1,920 m) near the summit. The coast west of HualÄlai in particular had several royal complexes. In addition, the HVO uses GPS to measure slight changes in tilt and slope of HualÄlai, indicative of magmatic movement. This makes the cinder cone distinguishable from the composite volcano, which has a pointed top.  HualÄlai averages 18.27 in (46 cm) of rainfall per year. HualÄlai is estimated to have risen above sea level about 300,000 years ago.  It is the westernmost of the five major volcanoes which form the island of Hawaiʻi. After Moore et al. What is the highest mountain range in South America? The eruptions, although partially covered by flows from HualÄlai and Mauna Loa, have built a distinctive structure known as the Puʻu Anahulu ridge. Although the two larger volcanos have each erupted over 150 times in the last 1,000 years, HualÄlai has done so but 3 times. Hualalai Crater mtn, 8,271 ft above sea level, Kailua-Kona, HI - Duration: ... Mauna Loa the largest volcano on Earth and Mauna Kea the highest volcano of Hawaii - Duration: 2:51. For example, Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa on the big island of Hawaii are examples of … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Hualalai volcano is probably best known for the black gold that comes from its slopes: Kona Coffee. Hot spots push hot molten rock up into the surface of the Earth and create volcanoes under the sea. Eruptions of Hualalai Volcano in 1800-01 occurred from 5 vents with two lava flows reaching the sea. These two volcanoes are considered dormant. The cone is constructed of trachyte, a type of volcanic lava that exists at no other volcano on Hawaiʻi. The relative unpreparedness of the residents in the area caused by the lull in activity would worsen the consequences of such an event. Collapse of vents produced, Spatter deposits, Ê»aÊ»Ä and pahoehoe basalt lava flows.  The volcano is populated by many birds and animals; the coast in particular attracts many fish and sea-dependent animals, such as the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) and the black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus).  The Ka'Å«pÅ«lehu flow is also known for the particularly large quantity of mafic and ultramafic xenoliths that came up with it. In 1929, however, an intense swarm of more than 6,200 earthquakes rattled the area around Hualālai Volcano for more than a month.  There are over 100 cinder and spatter cones arranged along these rift zones. Hualalai began growing on the west flank of Mauna Kea about 800,000 years ago, and rose above sea level 300,000 years ago. The big island of Hawaii is the largest of the current Hawaiian Islands and is made of five volcanoes (Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa and Kilauea). This was probably caused by magma movement near the surface, but there was no surface activity or eruption. Hualalai, dormant volcano (8,271 feet [2,521 metres]), northwestern Hawaii island, Hawaii, U.S. about 190 in 2008. Geologists hypothesize that Puʻu Waʻawaʻa originally formed during a pumice eruption a little over 100,000 years ago, and has continued to build itself since then, with at least three distinct trachyte flows recognized. Hualalai Volcano is the third most active Hawaiian volcano and is located on the Kona side of the Big Island. Hawaii has literally emerged from the seas. Over time these eventually build up and break through the water to form what we know as islands.  The road from Kailua-Kona up the slopes of HualÄlai is named for Frank "Palani" Greenwell. Over time, a series of eruptions occurred and the lava piled onto the already formed underwater volcano which consequently leading to the form… The earthquakes were most likely caused by an intrusion of magma beneath the volcano.  According to the USGS lava-flow hazard zones, on a scale of 1 to 9, all of HualÄlai is listed as threat level 4. This eruption produced very fluid alkalic basalt lava flows that entered the ocean off the western tip of Hawaiʻi island. Since then the Four Seasons Resort and the KÅ«kiʻo golf course and vacation home complex have also been built on the 1800 flow. , Although some of HualÄlai is bare volcanic rock, most of it is covered by some form of vegetation. , A recent calm period, with almost no earthquake or magmatic activity at HualÄlai, has seen the growth of homes, businesses, and resorts on the mountain's flanks. Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth. Its lavas are notable for containing many mantle xenoliths, pieces of the Earth’s mantle brought to the surface by volcanic eruptions. HualÄlai stands at 8,271 ft (2,521 m) with a prominence of 3,071 ft (936 m). The volcano is also important ecologically, is home to many rare species and several nature reserves near the summit, and is a popular hiking attraction. Its peak stands 8,271 feet (2,521 m) above sea level. Since Hawaii is located on a hot spot, it is very common for volcanoes to form and erupt there. The campus is located at 74 - 4966 Hualalai , Several ecological reserves lie on the flanks of HualÄlai.  The shield-building stage was completed by 120,000 years ago. The reserve measures 655 acres (265 ha) and protects an ecosystem that has since been largely deforested in the surrounding area. Pockmarked with craters near the summit, Hualalai is studded with cinder and spatter cones. Figure 3.2 shows a map of the 5 major volcanoes that make up the Hawaii Island (Macdonald 59). Much of the southern slope (above the modern town of Kailua-Kona) consists of lava flows covered by a layer of volcanic ash from 10 to 100 cm (4 to 39 in) thick.  The Hawaii Belt Road traverses the western slopes with an upper route called the Mamalahoa Highway and lower route named for Queen Kaʻahumanu. The Bishop Estates owns most of the land on and around Hualalai and reportably routinely denies access to hikers but it seems there is seldom anyone there to enforce any claims of ownership. , HualÄlai last erupted in 1801. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The southern section of the reserve, closest to the summit, has been split into a bird sanctuary. It was deep enough there for boats to land when the tide was high". Over 200,000 years ago it is believed that an enormous landslide removed the volcano's northeast flank forming the amazing sea cliffs that mark this part of the island. Its lava streams are interspersed with those of nearby Mauna Loa on the southern and eastern slopes. Destroyed houses, water tanks, stone fences, and Keauhou Bay were favored retreats Hawaiian! 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