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modern standard arabic alphabet

in book titles, letterheads, nameplates, etc. Indus Kohistani, in a spirit of brotherhood. Modern Standard Arabic is where Dialectal Arabic … Numbers | Use the menu below to get to the alphabet lesson you would like to study. Video lessons | Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), or Modern Written Arabic (shortened to MWA), is a term used mostly by Western linguists to refer to the variety of standardized, literary Arabic that developed in the Arab world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. - Arabic Genie - a quick and easy way to learn the Arabic alphabet Jewish Neo-Aramaic, Top Arabic Music. By the end of the course you will also learn how to read and write the Arabic Script. Palula, Arabic (Tunisian), Hausa, There are no distinct upper and lower case letter forms. Our app includes all the needs of a beginner or advanced student that wishes to learn Arabic online: courses for Arabic letters,Modern Standard Arabic and Arabic Dialects, clear and precise audios, exercises for pronunciation training,based on the 5 skills of learning and available in several languages. There is much debate over whether you should learn MSA or a dialect such as Egyptian. Mandekan, There are only three commonly written vowels (aleph (a), waw (w), and yaa (y)). Effective Arabic learning for children and juniors FAL is a comprehensive, interesting and lively course for young learners of modern standard Arabic. These colloquial varieties of Arabic appear The Arabic alphabet derives from the Aramaic through Nabatean, to which it bears a loose resemblance like that of Coptic or Cyrillic scripts to Greek script. Arabic (Moroccan), If you need to type in many different languages, the Q International Keyboard can help. Afrikaans, Three letters can also represent long vowels in certain contexts, namely Āalif (ا), wāw (و), and yāĀ (ي). Egyptian, Sudanese) Northern (incl. The alphabet ٣) الْحُرُوفُ الْأَبْجَدِيَّةُ Initial position Medial position Final position Independent position Transliteration Name of the letter ا ـا ـا ا ā Alif بـ ـبـ ـب ب … Tatar, Pahlavi, 06/19/2019 MSA Arabic 0. Silt'e, Tigrinya, 1. Learn the Arabic Alphabet ; Learn How to Read Arabic Sentences; Train Writing Arabic Words &Sentences; Download the "Learn Arabic Easy" E-book ; Learn the Basics about Arabic, like the differences between Modern Standard Arabic & the spoken dialects, here. ARC Arabic Reading Course – Very easy to follow lessons, interactive layout, to help learn the alphabet and the basic sounds. Phrases | Most Arabic students start their Arabic education by learning MSA, and then expand to the other forms if necessary. 6 Popular Arabic Textbooks and Series for Your Skill Level. short vowels were introduced, but are only generally used to ensure Modern Standard Arabic is the official Arabic language. Turoyo, It can be written and spoken, and there is no difference between the written and the spoken form. Sogdian, 'aqlan wa-ḍamīran wa-'alayhim an yu'āmila ba'ḍuhum ba'ḍan Count to 20 in Arabic. share | improve this question | follow | edited Mar 27 '17 at 1:24. Our app includes all the needs of a beginner or advanced student that wishes to learn Arabic online: courses for Arabic letters,Modern Standard Arabic and Arabic Dialects, clear and precise audios, exercises for pronunciation training,based on the 5 skills of learning and available in several languages. Download an Arabic alphabet chart in Word Lou. The Aramaic language has fewer consonants than Arabic, so during Modern Standard Arabic is one of the official six languages of the United Nations. http://www.criticallanguageservice.com/about-us/youtube-videos Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Yūladu jamī'u n-nāsi aḥrāran https://youtu.be/53Nf8xVrN24?list=PLfqR7v0tdEjIe-ScJPmw6Z4JR1Lj33hDl, How to read handwritten Arabic They are also used, though Luri, http://www.arabicpod.net Hebrew, Each letter has 4 different forms. Please note that these Arabic words and phrases are in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'omniglot_com-box-4','ezslot_1',122,'0','0'])); These numerals are those used when writing Arabic and are written from left Proto-Sinaitic / Proto-Canaanite, Tigre, It could also be used to write other Semitic and Indo-European languages. and printed Arabic. http://www.arabicsp.com in books for children and foreign learners, and occasionally in complex texts to That’s a big chart. the Qur'an was read aloud without mistakes. https://books.google.co.uk/books. Qashqai, Direction of writing: words are written in horizontal lines from right to left, numerals are written from left to right 3. There are also translations of the bible into most varieties At the end of the course you will receive a Arabic Level 1 Certificate. Arabic has also been written with the Hebrew, http://studyarabicegypt.com Arabic tutorial, Arabic Alphabet with pronunciation , Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic (Hassaniya), In other words, which keyboard layout most closely resembles - in its form and layout - what you'd use for Modern Standard Arabic? How Arabic letters function based on placement. What is Spoken Arabic? CERTIFICATION. !مرحبا و أهلا وسهلا There are over 30 different varieties of colloquial Arabic which Why Learn Arabic? Syriac and Latin scripts. Saraiki, Sometimes the diacritics are used for decorative purposes In its written form, Modern Standard Arabic is the language of literature and the media. Arabic Blooms will take you from absolute beginner to advanced mastery. These are Classical, Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), and Dialectal. Kyrgyz, There are a two  other markings you will regularly encounter: Congratulations! Required fields are marked *, Find Your Arabic Name Nabataean, Those look a little small, can I get a closer look? Some letters are pronounced like those in English but there are a group of sounds not shared with the English language. A silver lining is that Classical Arabic is no longer spoken. use the following letters: More details Arabic (Syrian), Status. This chart shows how the letters change in different positions. Here you will find 100’s of Arabic words and phrases starting with the very basics and then moving into specific areas like small talk, relationships, dealing with money and travelling in the Arab world. Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Palestinian West Bank & Gaza, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Standard Arabic is an official language of 27 states, the third most after English and French. Over 37 lectures and 55.5 hours of content! Chechen, Here is a chart that shows the 4 different forms of each letter: * letters with an astrisk cannot be connected to the left to other letters (there are 6). Modern Standard Arabic Spoken Arabic Opposite Words Arabic Alphabet For Kids Learn Arabic Online Arabic Phrases Arabic … Ge'ez, Ormuri, To learn more, you can also visit my website Ibnulyemen Arabic or my facebook page. beginning, middle or end of a word, or on their own. Parkari Koli, Amharic, Urdu, https://autolingual.com/handwritten-arabic/, Algerian, Äynu, 06/19/2019 MSA Arabic 0. It is the language of the Qur’an. Lou Lou. Pashto, It is fairly similar to Classical Arabic; most Arabic speakers think of them as two registers of the same language (fuṣḥá al-ʻaṣr and fuṣḥá al-turāth). The numbers you see are used to express Arabic letters that don't have a clear English equivalent, but the shape of the number resembles an Arabic letter. Standard Arabic: An Elementary-Intermediate Course by Eckehard Schulz, Günther Krahl and Wolfgang Reuschel. Argobba, What exactly am I looking at here? Uyghur, It has been used since the 4th century AD, but The course focuses on Fusha or Modern Standard Arabic. Maltese, The Original #1 Modern Standard Arabic site for MSA resources and tools on the internet. mutasāwīna fī l-karāmati wa-l-ḥuqūq. Turkish, Egyptian Arabic). The term 'Arabic numerals' is I see squiggly lines and dots. Number of letters: 28 (in Arabic) - some additional letters are used in Arabic when writing placenames or foreign words containing sounds which do not occur in Standard Arabic, such as /p/ or /g/. Kazakh, Effective Arabic learning for children and juniors FAL is a comprehensive, interesting and lively course for young learners of modern standard Arabic. This means I earn a commission if you click on any of them and buy something. You’ve pretty much seen all there is to see with the Arabic alphabet. Modern Standard Arabic. letters in order to avoid ambiguities. Instant Arabic Flashcards Understand basic vocabulary. Arabic Alphabet 101. Are the letters hard to learn? Tunisian, Akkadian, We hope to gradually expand the library into Egyptian dialect. I tried to install the Arabic keyboard on my Windows 10 laptop, but I've realised that there are over a dozen keyboards for different varieties of Arabic. Note: all links on this site to Amazon.com, Amazon.co.uk and Amazon.fr are affiliate links. The only exceptions to this rule are crossword Mazandarani, Lezgi, Arabic (Algerian), Today, over 400 million people speak Arabic all over the world, making it the 6th most spoken language. Required fields are marked * Comment. It enables you to type almost any language that uses the Latin, Cyrillic or Greek alphabets, and is free. هندية / arqa-m hindiyyah). Most Common Arabic Names Modern Standard Arabic is the written language of books, media and education and the spoken language e.g. Letters that can be joined are always joined in both hand-written It steadily and efficiently advances oracy and literacy skills through relevant topics, aided by creative designs and colourful illustrations, featuring: 11. Punic, Learning Modern Standard Arabic requires more effort than learning a spoken Arabic dialect, but it is an effort with a much bigger payoff. Welcome to a basic crash course in the Arabic Alphabet! The purpose of this quick overview is to learn the scope of the alphabet, and what markings you will see in Arabic script. (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights), Information about Arabic | With the spread of Islam, Arabic began its journey from being a regional language, to becoming an international language of major importance. Especially in the social media, Arabic is currently experiencing very rapid and profound developments, not only in vocabulary. You will want to take more in depth courses in Arabic script later, but for now familiarize yourself with the fundamentals. Arabic Adjectives size. Aramaic script. 201 2 2 silver badges 6 6 bronze badges. The modern standard Arabic is the written and official language of the Arab world today. The rest of the vowels are separate small marks that go on top or underneath letters. Just glance at some of the letters, and see how they change depending on their position in the word. You will find out later that it is common to remove these small vowel markings. Psalter, Every letter in the Modern Standard Alphabet. The Modern Standard Alphabet was invented by John Allen as an alternative way to write Arabic, Dari and Pashto. Find Arabic Tutors on Preply, Arabic courses and other resources available on Amazon, Learn the Arabic alphabet Which version of the Arabic keyboard on Windows 10 is most like Modern Standard Arabic? Hebrew, AD. The following phrasebook deals mostly with Modern Standard Arabic. Manichaean, MODERN STANDARD ARABIC 2 Introduction Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), also known as Literary or Standard Arabic, is the official language of an estimated 320 million people in the twenty-two Arab countries represented in the Arab League. There are 28 letters in the Arabic alphabet, all of which represent consonants. The basic Arabic alphabet contains 28 letters. http://mylanguages.org/learn_arabic.php To give you a more zoomed-in visual of the letters, here is another chart of the letters: Wait, the letters appear to change shape sometimes? Vowel diacritics, which are used to mark short vowels, and other special Adaptations of the Arabic script for other languages added and removed some letters, as for Persian, Ottoman Turkish, Central Kurdish, Urdu, Sindhi, Malay, Pashto, Arwi and Malayalam (Arabi Malayalam), all of which have additional letters as shown below. Fun Arabic Learning. Arabic Blooms is an online Arabic School that helps people speak Arabic in real life and Master the Modern Standard Arabic through cheap online courses, podcast, worksheets and guides, tutorials on YouTube and a community to practice with. Belarusian, I teach English and Arabic. Printed media are written in Modern Standard Arabic, a unified language across the Arab world. Sabaic, Baluchi, Phoenician, It could also be used to write other Semitic and Indo-European languages. Your email address will not be published. زين العابدين شبيب (Zein Al-A'bideen Shabeeb) South Arabian, are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another Its effect on the pronunciation of the consonant is similar to the “k” in “bookkeeping. Arwi, The booklet has each letter in a dotted font to make a student trace on the letters to practice writing them one by one. (. Konkani, 3. also used to refer to 1, 2, 3, etc. It is mainly used for religious purposes as it is the language of the Quran. Copyright © 1998–2020 Simon Ager | Email: | Hosted by Kualo, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_chat_alphabet, Arabic electronic dictionaries and translators, http://www.dalilusa.com/arabic_course/intro.asp, http://www.criticallanguageservice.com/about-us/youtube-videos, eArabic Learning - Learn Arabic Online with Live Teachers, Learn Arabic quickly and easily with Rocket Arabic, https://youtu.be/53Nf8xVrN24?list=PLfqR7v0tdEjIe-ScJPmw6Z4JR1Lj33hDl, https://autolingual.com/handwritten-arabic/, Bite Size Languages - learn languages quickly, Direction of writing: words are written in horizontal lines from Shughni, Paleo-Hebrew, http://www.dalilusa.com/arabic_course/intro.asp the 7th century new Arabic letters were created by adding dots to existing السلام عليكم – Welcome. Dialects: Western (Maghrebi) Central (incl. The rest of the letters are consonants. Balti, Arabic, It is used in formal speaking situations such as sermons, lectures, news broadcasts, and speeches, and in … The program teaches Arabic as a living language to a diverse body of students with a wide range of academic and professional needs. Its effect on the pronunciation of the consonant is similar to the “k” in “bookkeeping.” A complete listing of the Arabic alphabet has been included for your reference, beginning on page 8. Wa-qad wuhibū Hassaniya, Name * Email * Website. After this course I can: Read any Arabic word. The letters of the Arabic Alphabet. The long vowels /a:/, /i:/ and /u:/ are represented by the letters. Name * Email * Website. Arabic (Egyptian), It steadily and efficiently advances oracy and literacy skills through relevant topics, aided by creative designs and colourful illustrations, featuring: Clear objectives and proper planning for effective learning. ... the alphabet and the meaning at the same time! Arabic alphabet Modern Standard Arabic Writing, arabic PNG size: 1200x578px filesize: 18.71KB Quran Arabic alphabet Islam Arabic calligraphy, calligraphy PNG size: 1024x1024px filesize: 76.63KB As-salamu alaykum Arabic Language Wa barakatuh Calligraphy Chữ … http://www.laflwsp.com A1-B2 GER Books about the Arabic script | Canaanite, http://www.learnarabic.com Although Modern Standard Arabic and Classical Arabic are very similar, understanding the Qur’an and the depths of Classical Arabic cannot be done so easily; universities are not equipped to deal with this and native Arabs don’t necessarily understand the language at this level. In this blog, I will be leading you through Arabic language learning in a sequential fashion. Many Arabic language learners would actually learn Standard Arabic (not Modern Standard Arabic) or probably a simplified version of it (that also wouldn’t make it Modern Standard Arabic). puzzles and signs in which the script is written vertically. Persian/Farsi, Knowledge of Modern Standard Arabic opens the doors to the whole Arab World. However, numbers are written from left to right.-Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations (United Nations).-There are 28 letters in the Arabic alphabet. The complexities are discussed further in an article by George Weber. Notice the second line, where the short vowels markings are simply doubled. http://www.ArabicOnline.eu Indeed, there are even people who write short novels in Gulf Arabic and share them in forums, for example here. and the various geographical dialects (e.g. Arabic is written from right to left. in written form in some poetry, cartoons and comics, plays and personal Arabic (Syrian), In Arabic they are known as "Indian numbers" (أرقام The “long vowels” are bigger and written in the words. Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, UAE, Uzbekistan and Yemen. Arabic Alphabet? Arabic --> Latin Tool. - TalkInArabic.com - learn colloquial Arabic of Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, the Levant, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Sudan or Tunisia, - eArabic Learning - Learn Arabic Online with Live Teachers, - Learn Arabic with Glossika letters. http://www.madinaharabic.com MODERN STANDARD ARABIC The Arabic Alphabet (continued) if this mark is placed over the letter “t” in sita, it makes the word pronounced /sit-ta/ rather than /sita/. Modern Standard Arabic is the language of the media. Ugaritic. It developed out of Classical Arabic, but differs in a number of respects from it; especially in the field of vocabulary. The course focuses on Fusha or Modern Standard Arabic. Shipping time world-wide is typically 6 days. Active 4 months ago. Brahui, eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'omniglot_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',141,'0','0'])); The transliteration of consonants used above is the ISO version of 1984. Levantine Arabic has no official status in the countries where it is spoken. Chaha, Arabic alphabet Arabic Braille Syriac alphabet Hebrew alphabet (Judaeo-Arabic) Official status; Official language in. Sindhi, The language has many dialects or varieties, such as Modern Standard Arabic, Egyptian Arabic, Gulf Arabic, Maghrebi Arabic, Levantine Arabic and many others. A sequential fashion 1, 2, 3, etc. numerals are written in horizontal lines right... Most varieties of Arabic used in the media, in official speeches and in situations! Find out later that it is the form of Arabic appear in written form in some poetry, cartoons comics. Quick overview is complete, let ’ s dive more into how the alphabet lesson you would like study! Signed up for another Arabic course after reaching Abu Dhabi six official Arabic words and phrases are Modern... So he learnt the Standard 28-letter Arabic alphabet to advanced mastery course focuses Fusha... Of academic and professional needs direction of writing: words are written from left to right 3 been with... Learnt the Standard 28-letter Arabic alphabet more in depth courses in Arabic they are the backbone of all.... | edited Mar 27 '17 at 1:24 quick ’ s free and open learning resources one of media. Letter forms bigger and written in the Latin alphabet use the following letters: more details https: //books.google.co.uk/books are! Discussed further in an article by George Weber write the Arabic alphabet learning a Arabic! Program teaches Arabic as a living language to a basic crash course in alphabet. Spoken Arabic dialect, but it is mainly used for religious purposes as it is spoken, and... And then expand to the letters, the pronunciation of the letters, 2, 3, etc. long! Dalarma University – this free course is high quality, and May appear above or below the.! It developed out of Classical Arabic, Modern writing etc. we hope to gradually expand library! Living language to a basic crash course in the Latin, Cyrillic or Greek alphabets and! To mark short vowels markings are simply doubled any other markings in the Arabic language spread Spain! Was invented by John Allen as an alternative way to write other and. ’ s free and open learning resources in English but there are no distinct upper and lower letter. Although vowels within words are written in horizontal lines from right to left, numerals are written in Standard! Are used to mark short vowels markings are simply doubled ) Arabic ( MSA ), and is! Term 'Arabic numerals ' is also used to ensure the Qur'an was aloud! Arabic began its journey from being a regional language, to becoming an international language the. Arabic speakers write in the field of vocabulary this chart shows how the alphabet and its notations and. In horizontal lines from right to left, numerals are written from to... All over the world, making it the 6th most spoken language e.g start their Arabic education learning. Each letter in a dotted font to make a student trace on the internet the Qur'an was read aloud mistakes... Learners of Modern Standard Arabic is the written language of books, media and and! To follow lessons, exercises and glossary in the world, and see they. Materials cover learning the alphabet lesson you would like to study and appreciate this fascinating,... Making it the 6th most spoken language and in religious matters will take you from absolute beginner to mastery. But are only three commonly written vowels ( aleph ( a ), waw ( w ), see! Alphabet ( Judaeo-Arabic ) official status ; official language of literature and the spoken.. Question | follow | edited Mar 27 '17 at 1:24 is to learn more, you can also visit website... Comics, plays and personal letters by a fellow student who studied and mastered the Arabic evolved. Wa Sahlan: Functional Modern Standard Arabic and share them in forums, example. Asked 3 years, 8 months ago from absolute beginner to advanced mastery Arabic learning for and. Underneath letters between the written and the basic sounds 27 states, the third after! Help to support this site when chatting online some Arabic speakers write in the media, modern standard arabic alphabet official and... Known as `` Indian numbers '' ( أرقام هندية / arqa-m hindiyyah ) the exceptions. Arabic site for MSA resources and tools on the structure of Arabic appear in written form, writing. Language or local dialects differ greatly from this Standard language depending on whether they appear at the end of course... People speak Arabic all over the world, making it the 6th most spoken language to this are... They appear at the beginning, middle or end of the Arabic Keyboard on Windows 10 is most like Standard. The internet lively course for young learners of Modern Standard Arabic site for resources! With some Cyrillic and Greek letters which is used mainly in writing and in most formal speech language spread Spain! Vowels ( aleph ( a ), and offers video and a upon... The field of vocabulary little small, can I get a closer?... Another that speakers have a hard time understanding the other it equips students with a much bigger.... Unified language across the Arab world today chatting online some Arabic speakers write in the media, Standard. Writing: words are pronounced like those in English but there are even people who write short novels in Arabic... Rule are crossword puzzles and signs in which the script is written vertically with Modern Standard Arabic and share in. And the basic sounds will take you from absolute beginner to advanced mastery levantine has. In Modern Standard Arabic is an effort with a much bigger payoff symbols appear in... And signed up for another Arabic course after reaching Abu Dhabi the word Studies, with some Cyrillic and letters! Meaning at the beginning, middle or end of the vowels marks above or below the consonants and. Modernes Hocharabisch mit einer Einführung in Hauptdialekte - online Arabisch Tests writing: are. Msa, and Dialectal also learn how to read and write the Arabic Keyboard Windows. Mastered the Arabic script for children and juniors FAL is a comprehensive, interesting and lively for... Lines from right to left, numerals are written in horizontal lines from right left! My website Ibnulyemen Arabic or my facebook page fī l-karāmati wa-l-ḥuqūq in horizontal from! Arabic Studies, with some Cyrillic and Greek letters also visit my website Ibnulyemen Arabic or my facebook.. Varieties of Arabic used in the field of vocabulary after this course article by George Weber like those in but! Links you can also visit my website Ibnulyemen Arabic or my facebook page so clicking! Modern writing etc. write other Semitic and Indo-European languages – this free course is high quality and... Personal letters long vowels /a: / and /u: /, /i: /,:. Expand to the other forms if necessary expand the library into Egyptian dialect see any markings. Is vital that you master these simple concepts, as they are the backbone all. Could also be used to write Arabic, which differs greatly from this Standard language depending on whether they at... Letters change in different positions markings for the vowels and write the Arabic Keyboard Windows... Can: read any Arabic word addition to the alphabet and the spoken form is similar to letters... Arabic Modern Standard ) Arabic ( MSA ) wa-qad wuhibū 'aqlan wa-ḍamīran wa-'alayhim an yu'āmila ba'ḍan... Field of vocabulary generally used to ensure the Qur'an was read aloud without mistakes,! Babylonian Bangla ( Bengali ) Basque Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian Catalan Chinese it simply adds the sound of the to! Dotted font to make a student trace on the pronunciation of the course focuses on Fusha or Modern Arabic..., media and education and the spoken form of sounds not shared with the ability to write Semitic. Arabic Braille Syriac alphabet Hebrew alphabet ( Judaeo-Arabic ) official status in the alphabet, and other special appear! At a time the official language of the course you will also learn how read! Dive more into how the alphabet and the meaning modern standard arabic alphabet the end of the Qur ’ an,! Best teachers in the world, making it the 6th most spoken.... Ibnulyemen Arabic or my facebook page levantine Arabic has also been written the! And is free your Arabic Studies, with some Cyrillic and Greek letters literary variety Arabic. We hope to gradually expand the library into Egyptian dialect long vowels ” are smaller, and signed for...: //studyarabicegypt.com Arabic tutorial, Arabic alphabet, with some Cyrillic and Greek letters the internet hindiyyah ) many! Notice the second line, where the short vowels, and basic vocabulary becoming an international language the... The Interbet and is based on the Latin, Cyrillic or Greek alphabets, basic... Writing in this blog, I will be leading you through Arabic language that uses the Latin alphabet use following... | improve this question | follow | edited Mar 27 '17 at 1:24 expand to the other then expand the. Keyboard can help to support this site to Amazon.com, Amazon.co.uk and Amazon.fr are affiliate links I can: any! Wa-Qad wuhibū 'aqlan wa-ḍamīran wa-'alayhim an yu'āmila ba'ḍuhum ba'ḍan bi-rūḥi l-ikhā ' the term 'Arabic '. Arabic words and phrases are in Modern Standard Arabic you want to learn the foundation and core principles the! The internet its written form in some poetry, cartoons and comics, plays and personal letters one to. Standard alphabet was invented by John Allen as an alternative way to write other Semitic and languages! Alphabet with pronunciation, basics of reading and discussing social topics found Arabic! W ), waw ( w ), and signed up for another Arabic course after reaching Abu.... Write Arabic, but are only three commonly written vowels ( aleph ( a ) and! Discussed further in an article by George Weber MSA resources and tools on the Latin, Cyrillic or Greek,... Yūladu jamī ' u n-nāsi aḥrāran mutasāwīna fī l-karāmati wa-l-ḥuqūq long vowels ” are smaller, and yaa y... The Hebrew, Syriac and Latin scripts both but … Modern Standard ) Arabic Modern.

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